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Avoid crouching and stooping as it makes you look smaller and more animal-like. Yell, bang pots and pans, or throw objects at the cougar, fight like your life depends on it, because it does. People live for many years in the woods and never see more than a cougar track. The potential for an attack is very remote. If you get the privilege of a glance of one of these magnificent creatures in the wild..." shared  Ron Cummings Former Bass Lake Ranger Sierra National Forest, U.S.D.A. Forest Service.

If a bear stands on its hind legs, it is not being aggressive. It is trying to see, hear and smell you better in order to identify what you are. Talk firmly and in a low-pitched voice while cautiously backing away.

If the bear is close to the trail and you cannot bypass it or return the way you came, wait for the bear to leave the trail area. If the bear is approaching you, identify yourself as human by allowing the bear to see and hear you. The bear should divert its direction and avoid you.

Even at a distance a brief glimpse of a cougar should be cause for alarm. Though the cougar is most likely to leave the area, you should group together and travel with great caution. If there are repeated sightings, be prepared to aggressively defend yourself and others. Be alert and on guard for the remainder of your hike.

Safety Precautions
• Let someone know where you are going and when you plan to return
• Don't paddle in the dark.
• Leave pets at home. Pets may attract bears and mountain lions. If dogs are permitted, keep them on a short leash so they don't bother wildlife.
• Carry EPA registered bear pepper spray when paddling, hiking and camping in bear country
• Keep children within your sight.

Camping Precautions
• Set up cooking, eating and supply areas at least 100 yards from your sleeping area.
• Use bear resistant food containers, where available or required, to store food and odorous items when not in use
• Keep sleeping bags and tents completely free of food, beverages, and odorous items
• Do not sleep in the clothes you cook or handle fish and game in. The odors may attract wildlife.
• Keep a flashlight and bear pepper spray readily available.

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